Disaster management is a planning and procedure which is done to protect against several damages. It could be a natural or man-made disaster.
Disaster management aims to address issues such as floods, fire, hurricanes.
Disaster Management | Their Types
Types of disaster management
Natural disaster:- Natural disaster has an immediate impact on human beings like a volcanic eruption, flood, earthquake. So this can lead to death and suffering.
Environmental emergencies:- It includes hazardous material. Large forest fire is one of the environmental emergencies because it is caused by humans.
Complex emergencies:- Conflict during situations and war. They include Food insecurity, Epidemics, Armed conflict, displaced population.
Pandemic emergencies:- Sudden onset of disease and effect health which increase economic cost and so social cost. It includes Ebola, Zika, Avian Flu, Cholera, Dengue Fever, Malaria, Yellow fever, Coronavirus disease. Disaster Management
Types of Disaster (Disaster Management)
Agriculture disaster and pest:- Due to pests and diseases every year, there is a loss of 40%. The pest transmits serious diseases in plant-like mollusks, mites, nematodes.
Damaging winds:- Strong thunderstorms can come in different forms and cause damage.
Drought and water shortage:- Drought refers to dry weather in an area where rain is less. Drought involves water shortage, depletion of groundwater, etc.
Water shortage:- Scarcity of water refers to water shortage this could be due to deforestation, greenhouse gas, increased pollution. Disaster Management
Earthquake:- Earthquake refers to the sudden shaking of the surface of the earth. Which causes a lot of human life and fractures. Disaster Management
Emergency disease:- Emergency disease refers to which has appeared within a population or that incidence. It can be caused by previously not detected infectious agents.
Extreme heat:- Extreme heat is when the temperature rises above 90 degrees Celcius for at least 2 to 3 days. It can occur quickly without warning. Disaster Management
Flash flood:- Flash flood is caused by heavy rains from hurricanes and tropical storms.
Natural Disaster’s Example
Tangshan earthquake:- A powerful earthquake strike on 28 July 1976 with a measuring 8.3 on the Richter scale. The massive earthquake caused death to millions of people and caused intensive damage to property.
Pakistan earthquake:-In 20005 Kashmir Earquake came with a magnitude of 7.6. About 80000 people killed in northwestern Pakistan and Kashmir. where 1400 people died.
Cyclone Nargis:- Myanmar badly hit on May 2, 2008. The cyclone caused almost 140,000 death. It is the second deadliest recorded after the typhoon.
Tohuku earthquake and tsunami:- The earthquake hit japan in 2011 with a magnitude of 9.0.millions of people died and most of them were missing and destroyed many infrastructures.
Man-Made Disaster’s Example
The Bhopal gas tragedy was India’s first man-made disaster. More than 3787 people died in the Bhopal gas tragedy.
The gulf war spill killed thousands of marine species.
The AMRI Hospital Fire Kolkata:– The fire spread quickly through floors .patients were trapped and there was no exit point. The smoke spread did more damage than fire.
Bihar Flood Disaster:- About 1287people lost their life and livestock. There more 5 times more rain than the monthly average. Disaster Management
The Indian Ocean Tsunami 2005
The tsunami hit the west coast of summary, Indonesia in 2004. Which killed more than 2.40lac people. Disaster Management
Bacchae taluka of kutch experienced an earthquake of 7.6 to 7.9 on the Richter scale and lasted for 120 sec.
The disaster killed around 20000 people. Most of them were injured and many were homeless.
Great Bengal Famine 1770
Great Bengal famine caused by drought. And the affected areas were West Bengal, Odisha, and Bangladesh. The famine started in 1769 due to failed monsoon around 1 crore people died. There was no rain for consecutive 2 years
Super Cyclone, Odisha 1999
There was a super cyclone in Odisha.Around 15000 people killed in a cyclone. It was the most dangerous cyclone in the north Indian ocean. It not only affected but also Bangladesh Myanmar, Thailand.
The deepwater horizon oil spill
It was on April 20 in 2010, The deepwater horizon oil rig got exploded and sank in the sea, The spill threatened around 8,332 marine species, It is described as the biggest health crisis in the U.S.
Mitigation refers to the permanent reduction of the risk of disaster.
- Reducing the presence of a hazard
- Reducing vulnerability
Reducing the effect of hazard
OBJECTIVE OF MITIGATION
- Early warning and communication during an emergency.
- There must be early warning communication during an emergency.
- Developing plans to lower the risk of health.
- Services to be provided to the people at the time of emergency.
- Reduces economic disruption.
Societal measures for disaster
- Natural disasters can cause social disasters such as rebuilding, urgent access to shelter during storms.
- Emergent situations can cause stressful times for those who are affected.
- The whole community can be uprooted, homes, and live livelihood.
- People may be in shock, trauma after the disaster.
- The mental health issue can lead to intake of drugs and alcohol.
Environmental impact of disaster
- Flood usually damage crops, houses, fracture.
- Drought begins with the change in quantity and quality of water.
- Drought affects plant and animal species. It produces a loss of biodiversity.
- Drought also lowers the water quality, shifting salt concentration, PH level, and dissolved oxygen, increasing water temperature.
- Tropical storms create a high risk of damaging trees and underbrush. During coastal storms, there is erosion in shores and beaches.
What is Biological Disaster
The effect caused by the enormous spread of living organisms that may be spread disease, viruses, or an infestation of plant and animal.
It affects a large group of people.
The primary responsibility of dealing with biological disasters is with the state government.
Prevention of Biological Disaster
- To prevent the spread of disaster. There must be proper ventilation and usage of UV lamps.
- There must be proper personal hygiene.
- There must be a safe water supply, Proper sewage pipelines so that water-borne diseases like cholera, typhoid could be prevented.
- Stagnate water should not be used.
- There should be proper vector control measures.
- Regular spraying of insecticides for controlling vectors.
- Controlling the population of rodents.
- Disaster preparedness refers to the reduce the effect of a disaster whether it has happened naturally or man-made.
- Research and planning should be done in order to predict areas or regions that may be at risk of disaster.
- Disaster preparedness is with risk reduction to prevent disaster situations and also result in saving maximum lives.
- Minimizing the loss of life and damage to property .preparedness is the important way of reducing the disaster.
Disaster Response and Relief
- The immediate assistance providing after the disaster to save a life, reduce health impact, public safety, meeting the basic requirements, such as supplying temporary houses and water supply.
- Providing food and water
- Providing emergence health care
- Prevention of disease and disability.
Disaster recovery refers to the provision that goes beyond immediate relief and helps those who have gone through the full impact of the disaster.
Rebuilding of infrastructure